❤️mysql子查询

小明的学习圈子2023-11-27数据库MySQL

mysql子查询

#子查询
/*
含义:
出现在其他语句中的select语句,称为子查询或内查询
外部的查询语句,称为主查询或外查询

分类:
按子查询出现的位置:
    select后面:
        仅仅支持标量子查询
    from后面:
        支持表子查询
    where或having后面:★
        标量子查询(单行) √
        列子查询  (多行) √
        行子查询
        
    exists后面(相关子查询)
        表子查询
按结果集的行列数不同:
    标量子查询(结果集只有一行一列)
    列子查询(结果集只有一列多行)
    行子查询(结果集有一行多列)
    表子查询(结果集一般为多行多列)
*/
#一、where或having后面
/*
1、标量子查询(单行子查询)
2、列子查询(多行子查询)
3、行子查询(多列多行)

特点:
①子查询放在小括号内
②子查询一般放在条件的右侧
③标量子查询,一般搭配着单行操作符使用
> < >= <= = <>

列子查询,一般搭配着多行操作符使用
in、any/some、all【any和all可以用min和max代替】

④子查询的执行优先于主查询执行,主查询的条件用到了子查询的结果
*/
#1.标量子查询★

#案例1:谁的工资比 Abel 高?

#①查询Abel的工资
SELECT salary
FROM employees
WHERE last_name = 'Abel'

#②查询员工的信息,满足 salary>①结果
SELECT *
FROM employees
WHERE salary>(

    SELECT salary
    FROM employees
    WHERE last_name = 'Abel'
);

#案例2:返回job_id与141号员工相同,salary比143号员工多的员工 姓名,job_id 和工资

#①查询141号员工的job_id
SELECT job_id
FROM employees
WHERE employee_id = 141

#②查询143号员工的salary
SELECT salary
FROM employees
WHERE employee_id = 143

#③查询员工的姓名,job_id 和工资,要求job_id=①并且salary>②

SELECT last_name,job_id,salary
FROM employees
WHERE job_id = (
    SELECT job_id
    FROM employees
    WHERE employee_id = 141
) AND salary>(
    SELECT salary
    FROM employees
    WHERE employee_id = 143

);

#案例3:返回公司工资最少的员工的last_name,job_id和salary

#①查询公司的 最低工资
SELECT MIN(salary)
FROM employees

#②查询last_name,job_id和salary,要求salary=①
SELECT last_name,job_id,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary=(
    SELECT MIN(salary)
    FROM employees
);

#案例4:查询最低工资大于50号部门最低工资的部门id和其最低工资

#①查询50号部门的最低工资
SELECT  MIN(salary)
FROM employees
WHERE department_id = 50

#②查询每个部门的最低工资

SELECT MIN(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id

#③ 在②基础上筛选,满足min(salary)>①
SELECT MIN(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
HAVING MIN(salary)>(
    SELECT  MIN(salary)
    FROM employees
    WHERE department_id = 50
);

#非法使用标量子查询

SELECT MIN(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
HAVING MIN(salary)>(
    SELECT  salary
    FROM employees
    WHERE department_id = 250
);

#2.列子查询(多行子查询)★
#案例1:返回location_id是1400或1700的部门中的所有员工姓名

#①查询location_id是1400或1700的部门编号
SELECT DISTINCT department_id
FROM departments
WHERE location_id IN(1400,1700)

#②查询员工姓名,要求部门号是①列表中的某一个

SELECT last_name
FROM employees
WHERE department_id  <>ALL(
    SELECT DISTINCT department_id
    FROM departments
    WHERE location_id IN(1400,1700)
);
#案例2:返回其它工种中比job_id为‘IT_PROG’工种任一工资低的员工的员工号、姓名、job_id 以及salary

#①查询job_id为‘IT_PROG’部门任一工资

SELECT DISTINCT salary
FROM employees
WHERE job_id = 'IT_PROG'

#②查询员工号、姓名、job_id 以及salary,salary<(①)的任意一个
SELECT last_name,employee_id,job_id,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary<ANY(
    SELECT DISTINCT salary
    FROM employees
    WHERE job_id = 'IT_PROG'

) AND job_id<>'IT_PROG';

#或
SELECT last_name,employee_id,job_id,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary<(
    SELECT MAX(salary)
    FROM employees
    WHERE job_id = 'IT_PROG'

) AND job_id<>'IT_PROG';

#案例3:返回其它部门中比job_id为‘IT_PROG’部门所有工资都低的员工   的员工号、姓名、job_id 以及salary

SELECT last_name,employee_id,job_id,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary<ALL(
    SELECT DISTINCT salary
    FROM employees
    WHERE job_id = 'IT_PROG'

) AND job_id<>'IT_PROG';

#或

SELECT last_name,employee_id,job_id,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary<(
    SELECT MIN( salary)
    FROM employees
    WHERE job_id = 'IT_PROG'

) AND job_id<>'IT_PROG';

#3、行子查询(结果集一行多列或多行多列)

#案例:查询员工编号最小并且工资最高的员工信息

SELECT * 
FROM employees
WHERE (employee_id,salary)=(
    SELECT MIN(employee_id),MAX(salary)
    FROM employees
);

#①查询最小的员工编号
SELECT MIN(employee_id)
FROM employees

#②查询最高工资
SELECT MAX(salary)
FROM employees

#③查询员工信息
SELECT *
FROM employees
WHERE employee_id=(
    SELECT MIN(employee_id)
    FROM employees
)AND salary=(
    SELECT MAX(salary)
    FROM employees
);

#二、select后面
/*
仅仅支持标量子查询
*/

#案例:查询每个部门的员工个数

SELECT d.*,(

    SELECT COUNT(*)
    FROM employees e
    WHERE e.department_id = d.`department_id`
 ) 个数
 FROM departments d;
 
 #案例2:查询员工号=102的部门名
 
SELECT (
    SELECT department_name,e.department_id
    FROM departments d
    INNER JOIN employees e
    ON d.department_id=e.department_id
    WHERE e.employee_id=102
    
) 部门名;

#三、from后面
/*
将子查询结果充当一张表,要求必须起别名
*/

#案例:查询每个部门的平均工资的工资等级
#①查询每个部门的平均工资
SELECT AVG(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
SELECT * FROM job_grades;

#②连接①的结果集和job_grades表,筛选条件平均工资 between lowest_sal and highest_sal

SELECT  ag_dep.*,g.`grade_level`
FROM (
    SELECT AVG(salary) ag,department_id
    FROM employees
    GROUP BY department_id
) ag_dep
INNER JOIN job_grades g
ON ag_dep.ag BETWEEN lowest_sal AND highest_sal;

#四、exists后面(相关子查询)

/*
语法:
exists(完整的查询语句)
结果:
1或0
*/

SELECT EXISTS(SELECT employee_id FROM employees WHERE salary=300000);

#案例1:查询有员工的部门名

#in
SELECT department_name
FROM departments d
WHERE d.`department_id` IN(
    SELECT department_id
    FROM employees
)

#exists

SELECT department_name
FROM departments d
WHERE EXISTS(
    SELECT *
    FROM employees e
    WHERE d.`department_id`=e.`department_id`
);

#案例2:查询没有女朋友的男神信息

#in

SELECT bo.*
FROM boys bo
WHERE bo.id NOT IN(
    SELECT boyfriend_id
    FROM beauty
)

#exists
SELECT bo.*
FROM boys bo
WHERE NOT EXISTS(
    SELECT boyfriend_id
    FROM beauty b
    WHERE bo.`id`=b.`boyfriend_id`

);

例子

#1.    查询和Zlotkey相同部门的员工姓名和工资

#①查询Zlotkey的部门
SELECT department_id
FROM employees
WHERE last_name = 'Zlotkey'

#②查询部门号=①的姓名和工资
SELECT last_name,salary
FROM employees
WHERE department_id = (
    SELECT department_id
    FROM employees
    WHERE last_name = 'Zlotkey'

)

#2.查询工资比公司平均工资高的员工的员工号,姓名和工资。

#①查询平均工资
SELECT AVG(salary)
FROM employees

#②查询工资>①的员工号,姓名和工资。

SELECT last_name,employee_id,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary>(

    SELECT AVG(salary)
    FROM employees
);

#3.查询各部门中工资比本部门平均工资高的员工的员工号, 姓名和工资
#①查询各部门的平均工资
SELECT AVG(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id

#②连接①结果集和employees表,进行筛选
SELECT employee_id,last_name,salary,e.department_id
FROM employees e
INNER JOIN (
    SELECT AVG(salary) ag,department_id
    FROM employees
    GROUP BY department_id
) ag_dep
ON e.department_id = ag_dep.department_id
WHERE salary>ag_dep.ag ;

#4.    查询和姓名中包含字母u的员工在相同部门的员工的员工号和姓名
#①查询姓名中包含字母u的员工的部门

SELECT  DISTINCT department_id
FROM employees
WHERE last_name LIKE '%u%'

#②查询部门号=①中的任意一个的员工号和姓名
SELECT last_name,employee_id
FROM employees
WHERE department_id IN(
    SELECT  DISTINCT department_id
    FROM employees
    WHERE last_name LIKE '%u%'
);

#5. 查询在部门的location_id为1700的部门工作的员工的员工号

#①查询location_id为1700的部门

SELECT DISTINCT department_id
FROM departments 
WHERE location_id  = 1700


#②查询部门号=①中的任意一个的员工号
SELECT employee_id
FROM employees
WHERE department_id =ANY(
    SELECT DISTINCT department_id
    FROM departments 
    WHERE location_id  = 1700

);
#6.查询管理者是King的员工姓名和工资

#①查询姓名为king的员工编号
SELECT employee_id
FROM employees
WHERE last_name  = 'K_ing'

#②查询哪个员工的manager_id = ①
SELECT last_name,salary
FROM employees
WHERE manager_id IN(
    SELECT employee_id
    FROM employees
    WHERE last_name  = 'K_ing'

);

#7.查询工资最高的员工的姓名,要求first_name和last_name显示为一列,列名为 姓.名

#①查询最高工资
SELECT MAX(salary)
FROM employees

#②查询工资=①的姓.名

SELECT CONCAT(first_name,last_name) "姓.名"
FROM employees
WHERE salary=(
    SELECT MAX(salary)
    FROM employees

);

例子

# 1. 查询工资最低的员工信息: last_name, salary

#①查询最低的工资
SELECT MIN(salary)
FROM employees

#②查询last_name,salary,要求salary=①
SELECT last_name,salary
FROM employees
WHERE salary=(
    SELECT MIN(salary)
    FROM employees
);

# 2. 查询平均工资最低的部门信息

#方式一:
#①各部门的平均工资
SELECT AVG(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
#②查询①结果上的最低平均工资
SELECT MIN(ag)
FROM (
    SELECT AVG(salary) ag,department_id
    FROM employees
    GROUP BY department_id
) ag_dep

#③查询哪个部门的平均工资=②

SELECT AVG(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
HAVING AVG(salary)=(
    SELECT MIN(ag)
    FROM (
        SELECT AVG(salary) ag,department_id
        FROM employees
        GROUP BY department_id
    ) ag_dep

);

#④查询部门信息

SELECT d.*
FROM departments d
WHERE d.`department_id`=(
    SELECT department_id
    FROM employees
    GROUP BY department_id
    HAVING AVG(salary)=(
        SELECT MIN(ag)
        FROM (
            SELECT AVG(salary) ag,department_id
            FROM employees
            GROUP BY department_id
        ) ag_dep

    )

);

#方式二:
#①各部门的平均工资
SELECT AVG(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id

#②求出最低平均工资的部门编号
SELECT department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
ORDER BY AVG(salary) 
LIMIT 1;

#③查询部门信息
SELECT *
FROM departments
WHERE department_id=(
    SELECT department_id
    FROM employees
    GROUP BY department_id
    ORDER BY AVG(salary) 
    LIMIT 1
);

# 3. 查询平均工资最低的部门信息和该部门的平均工资
#①各部门的平均工资
SELECT AVG(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
#②求出最低平均工资的部门编号
SELECT AVG(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
ORDER BY AVG(salary) 
LIMIT 1;
#③查询部门信息
SELECT d.*,ag
FROM departments d
JOIN (
    SELECT AVG(salary) ag,department_id
    FROM employees
    GROUP BY department_id
    ORDER BY AVG(salary) 
    LIMIT 1

) ag_dep
ON d.`department_id`=ag_dep.department_id;



# 4. 查询平均工资最高的 job 信息
#①查询最高的job的平均工资
SELECT AVG(salary),job_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY job_id
ORDER BY AVG(salary) DESC
LIMIT 1

#②查询job信息
SELECT * 
FROM jobs
WHERE job_id=(
    SELECT job_id
    FROM employees
    GROUP BY job_id
    ORDER BY AVG(salary) DESC
    LIMIT 1

);
# 5. 查询平均工资高于公司平均工资的部门有哪些?

#①查询平均工资
SELECT AVG(salary)
FROM employees

#②查询每个部门的平均工资
SELECT AVG(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id

#③筛选②结果集,满足平均工资>①

SELECT AVG(salary),department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
HAVING AVG(salary)>(
    SELECT AVG(salary)
    FROM employees

);

# 6. 查询出公司中所有 manager 的详细信息.
#①查询所有manager的员工编号
SELECT DISTINCT manager_id
FROM employees

#②查询详细信息,满足employee_id=①
SELECT *
FROM employees
WHERE employee_id =ANY(
    SELECT DISTINCT manager_id
    FROM employees

);

# 7. 各个部门中 最高工资中最低的那个部门的 最低工资是多少

#①查询各部门的最高工资中最低的部门编号
SELECT department_id
FROM employees
GROUP BY department_id
ORDER BY MAX(salary)
LIMIT 1


#②查询①结果的那个部门的最低工资

SELECT MIN(salary) ,department_id
FROM employees
WHERE department_id=(
    SELECT department_id
    FROM employees
    GROUP BY department_id
    ORDER BY MAX(salary)
    LIMIT 1


);
# 8. 查询平均工资最高的部门的 manager 的详细信息: last_name, department_id, email, salary
#①查询平均工资最高的部门编号
SELECT 
    department_id 
FROM
    employees 
GROUP BY department_id 
ORDER BY AVG(salary) DESC 
LIMIT 1 

#②将employees和departments连接查询,筛选条件是①
    SELECT 
        last_name, d.department_id, email, salary 
    FROM
        employees e 
        INNER JOIN departments d 
            ON d.manager_id = e.employee_id 
    WHERE d.department_id = 
        (SELECT 
            department_id 
        FROM
            employees 
        GROUP BY department_id 
        ORDER BY AVG(salary) DESC 
        LIMIT 1) ;
Last Updated 2024/4/6 10:47:15